Denial, in ordinary English usage, is asserting that a statement or allegation is not true (which might be accurate or inaccurate). It may also mean the refusal of a request, but this article covers denial of true factual claims.
Denialism (practitioners are known as denialists or true believers) is the denial of historical or scientific facts accepted by the mainstream of society or by experts, for political or economic reasons. It includes:
- Climate change denial
- Denial of evolution
- Historical negationism (such as Holocaust denial)
- HIV/AIDS denialism
- Modern flat Earth societies
In psychoanalytic theory (which has been criticized as unscientific and factually unfounded), denial is a defense mechanism in which a person is faced with a fact that is too uncomfortable to accept and rejects it instead, insisting that it is not true despite what may be overwhelming evidence. The concept of denial is important in twelve-step programs (which have been criticized as ineffective) where the abandonment or reversal of denial that substance dependence is problematic forms the basis of the first, fourth, fifth, eighth and tenth steps.
People who are exhibiting symptoms of a serious medical condition sometimes deny or ignore those symptoms because the idea of having a serious health problem is uncomfortable or disturbing. The American Heart Association cites denial as a principal reason that treatment of a heart attack is delayed. Because the symptoms are so varied, and often have other potential explanations, the opportunity exists for the patient to deny the emergency, often with fatal consequences. It is common for patients to delay recommended mammograms or other tests because of a fear of cancer, even on average this worsens the long-term medical outcome.
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- Climate change denial
- Closed circle
- Cognitive dissonance
- Confirmation bias
- Deniable encryption
- Flat earth society
- Moral blindness
- Narcissistic defence sequences
- Non-apology apology
- Non-denial denial
- Plausible deniability
- Polite fiction
- Psychological manipulation
- Self-fulfilling prophecy
- The Politics of Denial
- Willful blindness
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- Izuma, K.; Adolphs, R. (2011). "The brain's rose-colored glasses". Nature Neuroscience. 14 (11): 1355–6. doi:10.1038/nn.2960. PMID 22030541.
- Travis, A. C.; Pawa, S.; LeBlanc, J. K.; Rogers, A. I. (2011). "Denial: What is it, how do we recognize it, and what should we do about it?". The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 106 (6): 1028–30. doi:10.1038/ajg.2010.466. PMID 21637266.
- Vos, M. S.; de Haes, H. J. C. M. (2011). "Denial indeed is a process". Lung Cancer. 72 (1): 138. doi:10.1016/j.lungcan.2011.01.026. PMID 21377573.